Screenwriting Blog
Posted on by Courtney Meznarich

Foil Characters: A Comprehensive Guide

In the world of literature, writers often employ devices to enhance their stories and give depth to their characters and plots. One such method is the use of foil characters.

But what is a foil character? How do they enhance your stories? Are they always enemies of the protagonist? Do they always bring conflict, or can they also be friends? In this article, we will delve into these questions and more.

Foil Characters

A Comprehensive Guide

What is a Foil Character?

In its simplest definition, a foil character is a character that contrasts with another character, typically the protagonist, to highlight particular qualities and characteristics of the main character.

More specifically, a foil character is a character who helps reveal aspects of another character's personality, often by providing a striking contrast.

Traits such as fear, greed, ambition, or kindness in the protagonist can be better understood through the interactions and juxtapositions with a foil character.

Essentially, a foil character acts as a mirror, reflecting and emphasizing the protagonist's traits and motivations.

For our younger readers, think of a foil character like a piece of foil reflecting light – they shine a light on the protagonist's traits to help us understand them better.

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How Foil Characters Enhance Your Stories

A story thrives on its characters, and the introduction of foil characters provides a powerful tool to understand our main character's traits and motivations more clearly.

Foil characters allow us to differentiate good from evil, smart from obtuse, strength from weakness. They enable readers to reflect more accurately on who the protagonist is. Essentially, the contrasts presented by the foil character create a clearer, more vivid image of the main character, helping to deepen our understanding and engagement with the story.

Consider the dynamic between Tom and Jay from F. Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby."

Tom, an Ivy League-educated athlete, is abrasive and makes the narrator, Nick Carraway, uncomfortable. In contrast, Jay is a more delicate gentleman, with new money and a rare smile that offers "eternal reassurance." By contrasting these two characters, Fitzgerald uses Tom as a foil to highlight Jay's qualities, giving us deeper insight into both their characters.

The Many Types of Foil Characters

Contrary to common belief, a foil character doesn't always have to be the antagonist or enemy of the protagonist.

The "Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet" by William Shakespeare beautifully illustrates this point. Here, Romeo's best friend Mercutio is his foil. Shakespeare uses Mercutio, who often mocks love and lovers, to highlight Romeo's desperate romanticism. Despite their friendship, their contrasting views on love enhance our understanding of Romeo's character.

Foil characters aren't limited to main characters either. Supporting characters can also have their own foils, creating complex layers within the narrative.

Think of Finn and Captain Phasma from "Star Wars: The Last Jedi,” written by Rian Johnson. Both served the First Order, but where Finn becomes a beacon of hope trying to end the oppressive regime, Captain Phasma staunchly stands by it, thus enhancing our understanding of Finn's character.

Foil characters can even be friends! In the Harry Potter series, written by J.K. Rowling, Hermione Granger serves as a foil to Harry. Both raised in Muggle households, they started their magical journey together. However, Hermione’s methodical, always-prepared approach contrasts with Harry’s instinct-driven, often unprepared method of operation. This contrast helps to highlight Harry's recklessness and Hermione's meticulousness, creating a more profound understanding of both characters.

Centering a Screenplay Around a Foil

Screenwriters can craft engaging stories by centering their screenplay around a foil. The BBC series "Sherlock Holmes,” created by Mark Gatiss and Steven Moffat, provides a great example. Sherlock Holmes, an obnoxious know-it-all with little empathy, is contrasted with Dr. John Watson, a practical and sympathetic individual driven by feelings rather than cold reasoning. Their interactions and verbal exchanges serve to enhance each character's unique traits, leading to a captivating story.

The Opposite of a Foil Character

Not all characters in literature serve to contrast with the protagonist. Some characters, known as "complement characters," may have characteristics that emphasize or diminish the protagonist's traits rather than contrasting them sharply. They may share common traits with the protagonist, serving to strengthen or weaken the protagonist's characteristics depending on the narrative's needs.

Examples of Foil Characters

Disney's films offer numerous examples of foil characters.

For instance, consider Scar and Mufasa from "The Lion King,” written by Irene Mecchi, Jonathan Roberts, and Linda Woolverton. Mufasa's righteous and caring nature is starkly contrasted with Scar's deviousness, thereby highlighting each character's traits.

A more complex example comes from "Silence of the Lambs," written by Thomas Harris originally, then adapted by Ted Talley for the screen. Hannibal Lecter and Clarice Starling act as foils for each other. Hannibal's calculating, manipulative nature starkly contrasts Clarice's earnest, principled approach, creating a fascinating interplay that deepens our understanding of both characters.


Foil characters serve as one of the most critical devices in the writer's toolkit, offering a mirror to the protagonist's characteristics. By providing contrasts and tensions within the story, foil characters allow for a more profound exploration of the main character's traits and motivations. This, in turn, leads to a more immersive and engaging narrative experience for the reader or viewer.

Understanding the function and application of foil characters can transform your writing, whether it be fiction, literary fiction, or screenplays. So, next time you sit down to craft your narrative, consider how the use of a foil character might serve to enhance your storytelling.

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